J4 ›› 2006, Vol. 24 ›› Issue (2): 70-77.

• 综述 • 上一篇    下一篇



  1. 兰州大学大气科学学院,甘肃兰州730000
  • 收稿日期:2005-11-11 修回日期:2006-03-31 出版日期:2006-06-30 发布日期:2006-06-30
  • 作者简介:吴丹(1983 - ),女,湖北仙桃人,硕士研究生,研究方向为气象学.
  • 基金资助:


Progress in Research of Acid Rain in China

WU Dan, WANG Shi-Gong, SHANG Ke-Zheng   

  1. College of Atmospheric Science,Lanzhou University,Lanzhou 730000,China
  • Received:2005-11-11 Revised:2006-03-31 Online:2006-06-30 Published:2006-06-30


回顾了我国开展酸雨研究以来所取得的各方面研究成果,主要包括酸雨的定义、空间分布特征、化学特征、影响酸雨pH 值的因素、酸雨对生态社会的影响以及酸雨控制的对策和方法6 个方面。研究表明,海洋降水pH 值以4. 8、内陆降水以5. 0 作为酸雨的界限更为合理;我国酸雨空间分布存在明显的地域差异,南方酸雨比北方严重,且以城市为中心分布;我国降水中总离子浓度很高,酸雨是典型的硫酸性酸雨,降水酸度与(SO42 - + NO3- )(/ NH4+ + Ca2 + )的浓度比值有着高度的正相关;酸雨的形成不仅仅取决于酸性物质的排放,还与酸性物质的迁移和扩散、土壤的性质、大气中的氨、大气颗粒物及其缓冲能力和气象条件有关;酸雨对生态系统、建筑物和人体健康都造成了严重危害,我国酸雨还有进一步加重的趋势,因此必须进一步加强和发展酸雨控制的对策和方法。

关键词: 酸雨定义, 空间分布, 化学特征, 成因, 危害, 控制对策


The outcome of various aspects in the research of acid rain in China is reviewed in this paper,which mainly includes thedefinition of acid rain,the characteristics of the spatial distribution,the chemical characteristics,the factors which affect acid rainˊs pH,the influence of acid rain on the ecosystem and society as well as the countermeasures and methods which can mitigate damages of acid rain. The traditional definition of acid rain is that the rainˊs pH less than 5. 6,and further researches indicate that it is more reasonable to set 4. 8 and 5. 0 as pH threshold of acid rain over oceans and inland regions,respectively. There is significant difference of the spatial distribution of acid rain in China,it is more serious in the south than that in the north,and the total ion concentration is very high in the precipitation in China,and acid rain presents typical vitriolic precipitation,there is high positive correlation between the acidity and the concentration ratio o(f SO42 - + NO3-)(/ NH4+ + Ca2 + ). The formation of acid rain is not only due to the acidic pollutant but also depends on those factors such as the transfer and diffusion of the pollutant,the soil character,the ammonia in the atmosphere,the neutralization ability of the atmospheric particles,the weather condition and so on. Acid rain has done serious harm to the ecosystem,the buildings and the peopleˊs health,and it has the trend to be more serious in China so we have to develop the further countermeasures and methods which can control the acid rain.

Key words: the definition of acid rain, spatial distribution, chemical characteristics, causes of formation, harm, countermeasures