Journal of Arid Meteorology ›› 2022, Vol. 40 ›› Issue (4): 690-699.DOI: 10.11755/j.issn.1006-7639(2022)-04-0690

• Technical Reports • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Application of agglomerative hierarchical clustering method in precipitation forecast assessment

QIAO Jinrong(), YUAN Xinpeng(), LIANG Xudong, XIE Yanxin   

  1. State Key Lab of Severe Weather, Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences, Beijing 100081, China
  • Received:2022-03-21 Revised:2022-05-24 Online:2022-08-31 Published:2022-09-22
  • Contact: YUAN Xinpeng


乔锦荣(), 原新鹏(), 梁旭东, 谢衍新   

  1. 中国气象科学研究院灾害天气国家重点实验室,北京 100081
  • 通讯作者: 原新鹏
  • 作者简介:乔锦荣(1997—),女,硕士生,主要从事数值预报及其评估检验研究.
  • 基金资助:


For precipitation forecast products with different methods and time, a large number of evaluation results often exist together. At present, we’re still lacking effective measures on how to analyze comprehensively and systematically these results. In this study, the agglomerative hierarchical cluster analysis is introduced to classify and analyze the different evaluation results of different forecast products, based on a grid precipitation forecast dataset of each member of the national forecast technology and method competition of CMA from June to September 2019, the central station guide forecast (SCMOC) of the National Meteorological Center, the seamless analysis and forecasting leading-edge system forecast of Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences and objective forecast products of 31 provinces (municipalities and autonomous regions), the global modelforecast of ECMWF (European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts) and NCEP (National Centers for Environmental Prediction). The results show that the agglomerative hierarchical clustering results can clearly distinguish their similarities and differences between different forecast products. The different evaluation indicators lead to different clustering results, but the forecast products with high similarity are still divided into a same subclass. The identification effect of four different inter-class similarity measurement methods on categories characteristics was different, and the Ward method was followed by Complete, Average and Single method from clear to fuzzy. In addition, the precipitation prediction ability for different administrative regions and forecast products was different, the accuracy of rain probability forecast in North China and East China was better than that in other regions, and most objective forecasts to rain probability and precipitation relative error were better than model forecast of ECMWF, while they to heavy precipitation were worse than ECMWF model, there are still greater difficulties in interpretation to heavy precipitation forecast.

Key words: agglomerative hierarchical clustering, intelligent grid forecast, precipitation forecast verification, similarity measurement methods, comprehensive analysis


面对不同方法、不同时效的降水预报产品,往往同时存在大量的检验评估结果,如何较全面、系统地综合分析以便更好地认识各预报结果,目前仍然缺乏有效手段。本文以2019年6—9月全国智能预报技术方法交流大赛的网格预报数据及国家气象中心指导预报、中国气象科学研究院的无缝隙分析预报前沿系统预报产品及31个省(市、区)客观预报产品、欧洲中期天气预报中心(European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts, ECMWF)和美国国家环境预测中心的全球模式预报数据构成的样本集为例,采用凝聚层次聚类分析方法,对不同降水预报产品的不同检验评估结果进行归类分析。结果表明:凝聚层次聚类结果能够清晰反映样本集内降水预报产品的整体性能及其差异。基于不同数量的降水评估指标的聚类结果存在明显差异,但高相似度的预报产品均能划分为一个子类。不同的类间相似度度量方法能够影响样本类别特征差异的清晰程度,从清晰到模糊依次为Ward、Complete、Average、Single。不同行政区域、预报产品的降水预报能力表现不同,华北和华东地区的晴雨预报准确率高于其他区域,绝大部分客观预报在晴雨和降水量相对误差预报性能上优于ECMWF模式预报,但在强降水预报中客观预报的性能不及ECMWF,表明对于强降水预报的释用还存在较大困难。

关键词: 凝聚层次聚类, 智能网格预报, 降水预报检验, 相似度度量方法, 综合分析

CLC Number: