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    Applicability Evaluation of Multi-time-scales Meteorological Drought Indexes in Typical Steppe of Inner Mongolia
    WU Rongsheng, HOU Qiong, YANG Yuhui, FENG Xuyu, LI Bin, ZHENG Fengjie
    Journal of Arid Meteorology    2021, 39 (2): 177-184.   DOI: 10.11755/j.issn.1006-7639(2021)-02-0177
    Abstract195)      PDF (759KB)(437)       Save
    Based on soil moisture and meteorological elements data at four pasture observation stations in typical steppe of Inner Mongolia from 1981 to 2015, the correlations between multi-time-scales meteorological drought indexes and soil relative moisture at different depths in spring, summer and autumn were comparatively analyzed, and the applicability of these drought indexes to drought monitoring was explored in typical steppe of Inner Mongolia. And on this basis, the prediction models of soil relative moisture at different depths were built by using multiple linear regression method in different seasons. The results show that the soil relative moisture at 0-20 cm depth in three seasons was affected by atmospheric water balance in the past two months, while the timescales influencing soil relative moisture at 0-50 cm and 0-100 cm depths were different in typical steppe of Inner Mongolia. In spring, the soil relative moistures at 0-50 cm and 0-100 cm depths were significantly regulated by previous annual precipitation. In summer, the soil relative moisture at 0-50 cm depth was closely related to atmospheric moisture balance in the past two months, while the soil drought at 0-100 cm depth was mainly controlled by precipitation deficit in the past 2-6 months. In autumn, the soil relative moisture at 0-50 cm depth was significantly influenced by previous precipitation for 3-6 months, while that at 0-100 cm depth was closely correlated with the balance between precipitation and evapotranspiration in the past three months, and the influence of meteorological droughts in the past six months and above was obvious. CI, MCI and PDSI had higher correlation with soil relative moisture at different depths than other meteorological drought indices in different seasons due to taking into account the comprehensive effects of long-term and short-term atmospheric water deficit. The established prediction models of soil relative moisture based on previous meteorological drought indexes could better capture the change of soil moisture in typical steppe, and they could support the drought monitoring and predication of pasture to some extent.
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    Application Comparison of CI and MCI Drought Indexes in Ningxia
    GAO Ruina, WANG Suyan, GAO Na, ZUO Hejiang
    Journal of Arid Meteorology    2021, 39 (2): 185-192.   DOI: 10.11755/j.issn.1006-7639(2021)-02-0185
    Abstract294)      PDF (2394KB)(475)       Save
    Based on daily precipitation and average temperature data at 18 meteorological stations of Ningxia from 1981 to 2016, prefectural and municipal disaster situations and annual climate impact assessment reports, CI and MCI were used as drought monitoring indicators, and their differences of application on meteorological drought monitoring in Ningxia from three aspects of drought days, drought intensity and typical drought events were compared and their applicability was explored. The results show that the annual change trends of drought days with moderate level and above monitored by CI and MCI were consistent in the past 36-year in Ningxia, they presented decreasing trend as a whole, but the drought days monitored by CI were more than MCI, and their spatial distribution characteristics were different, to certain extent, especially in northern arid region. The change trends of drought intensity monitored by CI and MCI were basically same, but the drought intensity of CI was stronger than MCI, and the less precipitation was, the stronger drought intensity of CI was. For typical drought events, the drought intensity monitored by CI was strong, the beginning was early, the duration was long, and the jumping phenomenon between drought levels was obvious, which wasn’t accordance with the evolution characteristics of drought. The monitoring effect of MCI was more stable and better sustainability, but the drought intensity was lighter. The precipitation was generally less in Ningxia, it concentrated from May to September, and the evaporation was large. Considering the influence of precipitation previous 150-day, the drought intensity monitored by MCI was lighter than actual situation. On the whole, CI was more suitable to daily meteorological drought monitoring than MCI in Ningxia, but two indexes could reflect the temporal evolution characteristics of meteorological drought days and intensity in central and southern Ningxia.
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    Spatio-temporal Characteristics of Persistent Regional Meteorological Drought in Summer and Autumn in Hunan
    ZHANG Chao, LUO Boliang
    Journal of Arid Meteorology    2021, 39 (2): 193-202.   DOI: 10.11755/j.issn.1006-7639(2021)-02-0193
    Abstract194)      PDF (2487KB)(418)       Save
    Based on daily MCI and identification method of persistent regional drought events, the persistent regional drought events in summer and autumn were identified in Hunan Province from 1961 to 2017. And on this basis, the spatio-temporal characteristics of evaluation indexes including frequency, duration, intensity and start date, end date of persistent regional drought evens were analyzed. The results show that the persistent regional drought events occurred 1.4 times per year on average in Hunan Province in summer and autumn from 1961 to 2017, and the annual variation trend of drought events wasn’t obvious. The decadal variation characteristic was obvious, the drought frequency was the least in the 2000s, but the accumulative intensity of drought was the strongest and lasting days of drought were the longest. The drought events were fewer and weaker in the 1990s. The continuous droughts from summer to autumn dominated in Hunan Province, and occurred more frequently from July 28 to October 14. The drought events persisted mainly from 15 d to 30 d, and the longest lasted 183 d. The duration of general drought events was less than 40 days, while for severe drought events and above it was more than 110 days. The spatial distributions of persistent regional drought events mainly appeared three patterns including the whole province pattern, northwestern pattern and southern pattern in Hunan Province. The drought events with the whole province pattern were the most, and drought grades reached mostly heavy level and above. The persistent regional drought events were less in the north and more in the south of Hunan Province, and the accumulative intensity of drought increased gradually from northwest to southeast. The drought degree in northwestern Hunan was lighter, while in Dongting Lake, central and southern Hunan it was heavier.
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    Circulation Anomaly Characteristics and Prediction of Drought and Flood Abrupt Alternations in Summer in Inner Mongolia
    LIU Wei, ZHAO Yanli, FENG Xiaojing
    Journal of Arid Meteorology    2021, 39 (2): 203-214.   DOI: 10.11755/j.issn.1006-7639(2021)-02-0203
    Abstract221)      PDF (4311KB)(467)       Save
     Based on monthly precipitation data at 116 meteorological stations of Inner Mongolia, NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data, NOAA sea surface temperature (SST) and 130 climate monitoring indexes from National Climate Center of China, the drought-flood abrupt alternation index (DFAI) in summer was calculated in Inner Mongolia, and on this basis the climate regions were divided. The anomalous characteristics of atmospheric circulation and SST in drought-flood abrupt alternation years in each climate region of Inner Mongolia were analyzed. The relations between DFAI in summer in each climate region of Inner Mongolia and previous circulation and SST indexes were discussed, and the prediction models of DFAI in summer were established in each climate region of Inner Mongolia. The results are as follows: (1) The transition characteristics from drought to flood weakened from late spring and early summer to midsummer, while that from flood to drought strengthened in each climate region of Inner Mongolia in recent 39 years. (2) The location and intensity of east Asian trough and western Pacific Ocean subtropical high had significant difference in western Inner Mongolia in drought-flood alternation years, and the water vapour supply and vertical motion were significantly different. The cold vortex intensity in northeast China, water vapour and vertical motion were significantly different in northeastern Inner Mongolia in drought-flood alternation years. (3) The DFAI in summer in Inner Mongolia had significantly negative correlation with previous SST of Indian Ocean, tropical western Pacific Ocean warm pool, Kuroshio region and the northeast of northern Pacific Ocean. (4) The prediction models of DFAI in summer in Inner Mongolia based on previous atmospheric circulation and SST indexes had certain prediction ability, which could provide some reference for the prediction of drought-flood abrupt alternation in summer in Inner Mongolia.
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    Characteristics of Wide-range Extreme Precipitation in Summer and Its Circulation Anomalies in Northern Xinjiang#br#
    ZHOU Yaman, SUN Di, ZHAO Yong, LI Anbei, GUO Yulin
    Journal of Arid Meteorology    2021, 39 (2): 215-224.   DOI: 10.11755/j.issn.1006-7639(2021)-02-0215
    Abstract189)      PDF (2901KB)(478)       Save
    Based on daily precipitation data at 45 meteorological stations of northern Xinjiang and NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data from June to August during 1961-2017, the threshold of summer extreme precipitation events was determined by using percentile method in northern Xinjiang. The temporal variation characteristics of summer extreme precipitation with different grades and their relationship with maximum daily precipitation in summer and corresponding monthly precipitation were analyzed in northern Xinjiang. The precipitation distribution of twelve cases for wide-range summer extreme precipitation with five-level was clustered by using Euclidean distance method, and on this basis their circulation characteristics were discussed emphatically. The results show that the frequency of summer extreme precipitation with different grades (except for four-level) presented significant rising trend in northern Xinjiang during 1961-2017. The daily precipitation at most stations during the wide-range extreme precipitation process was the maximum daily precipitation in summer of the same year, and the averagely accounted for 28.6% of corresponding monthly precipitation in northern Xinjiang. There were three patterns for the distribution of wide-range summer extreme precipitation in northern Xinjiang. The axis of 200 hPa westerly jet in western Asia subtropical zone was southward, and the westerly winds enhanced in the south of 40°N. The cold air moved southward under the guidance of Ural high pressure ridge, the low value system was active in West Siberia or Central Asia, and the high pressure system was strong in downstream Baikal region on 500 hPa, but the location, range and intensity of these systems were different, which led to different falling areas of wide-range extreme precipitation. Meanwhile, there were anomalous cyclonic and anti-cyclonic water vapor flux anomalies in Central Asia and the lower reaches of eastern Xinjiang, respectively, and the anomalous southward or eastward water vapor transport in northern Xinjiang provided favorable conditions for wide-range extreme precipitation.
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    Anomaly of Autumn Rain in the South Area of West China and Its Response to Atmospheric Cold Sources over the Tibetan Plateau in Winter
    ZHENG Ran, LIU Jiahuimin, WANG Chunxue, LI Dongliang, TANG Hongyu, LIU Bo
    Journal of Arid Meteorology    2021, 39 (2): 225-234.   DOI: 10.11755/j.issn.1006-7639(2021)-02-0225
    Abstract178)      PDF (4035KB)(416)       Save
    Based on the daily precipitation data of 269 meteorological observation stations in the south area of West China from 1971 to 2017 and the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data, etc., the change of autumn rain intensity and the characteristics of corresponding atmospheric circulation anomalies in the south area of West China were analyzed, the key area of atmospheric cold source over the Tibetan Plateau affecting autumn rain was sought, and the influences of atmospheric cold source in the key area on autumn rain intensity in the south area of West China were diagnosed. The results show that the intensity of autumn rain in the south area of West China hadn’t a significant change trend as a whole, and its interannual change might be affected by the hysteresis of anomalous changes of atmospheric cold source over the Tibetan Plateau in previous winter (January). When the atmospheric cold source over the Tibetan Plateau was abnormally strong (weak) in previous winter, it could stimulate the cyclonic (anti-cyclonic) anomalous circulation from the South China Sea to the western Pacific and maintain until summer. The continuous westward (eastward) airflow on the south side of the cyclone (anti-cyclone) caused surface warm water over the western (central) Pacific to travel eastward (westward), which caused anomalous warm (cold) of sea temperature in the equatorial central Pacific, then stimulate a cyclonic (anti-cyclonic) circulation in the western Pacific region. The water vapor conditions were poor (good) in the south area of West China under the control of northerly (southerly) winds in the west side of the cyclone (anti-cyclone), the precipitation was less (more), and autumn rain was weak (strong).
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    Spatio-temporal Distribution Characteristics of Summer Extreme Precipitation in the Yangtze River Basin
    GUO Guangfen, DU Liangmin, XIAO Ying, GAO Yaqi, WU Yao
    Journal of Arid Meteorology    2021, 39 (2): 235-243.   DOI: 10.11755/j.issn.1006-7639(2021)-02-0235
    Abstract200)      PDF (3569KB)(442)       Save
     Based on daily precipitation data at 700 meteorological stations of the Yangtze River basin from June to August during 1961-2017, the areal precipitation in each sub-zone was calculated by using Thiessen polygon method, and converted to normal distribution by using Box-Cox transformation. The thresholds of extreme precipitation events in summer were determined by using percentile method in each sub-zone of the Yangtze River basin. And on this basis, the temporal and spatial distribution characteristics of summer extreme precipitation events in each sub-zone and their spatial relationships of precipitation among sub-basins were studied. The results are as follows:(1) The decadal characteristic of summer extreme precipitation events in the Yangtze River basin was obvious. The extreme rainless events occurred frequently in the 1960s and 1970s, and the extreme rainy events dominated in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River, while the extreme rainless events dominated in the upper reaches in the 1980s and 1990s. Since the 21st century, the large-range extreme rainless events dominated and occurred mainly in the upper reaches, while the extreme rainy event was easily to occur in Shigu of Jinsha River and above. (2) The first mode of summer extreme precipitation decomposed by EOF was consistently negative in most parts of the Yangtze River basin except for the east of Mintuo River, the north of Jialing River and the south of Poyang and Dongting Lakes during 1961-2017, vice versa. The second mode appeared opposite phases in the north and the south of the Yangtze River basin. (3) When the precipitation was extremely more in summer in the Yangtze River basin, the spatial distribution of summer precipitation had obvious differences and appeared four kinds of patterns, but the precipitation was easily more in the main streams of the Yangtze River. When the extreme rainless events occurred in summer, the precipitation was consistently less in most sub-zones, while for Mintuo River and Jialing River or the south of two lakes it was more.
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    Contributions of Climate Changes and Human Activities to Runoff Change in the Taizihe Basin
    LIU Mingyan, FANG Yihe, SUN Fenghua, ZHAO Chunyu, HOU Yiling, CUI Yan, ZHOU Xiaoyu
    Journal of Arid Meteorology    2021, 39 (2): 244-251.   DOI: 10.11755/j.issn.1006-7639(2021)-02-0244
    Abstract127)      PDF (1898KB)(340)       Save
    In order to reveal the influence of climate change and human activity on runoff in the Taizihe basin, based on conventional observation data including temperature and precipitation at five meteorological stations and runoff at a hydrological station of Liaoning Province during 1961-2018, the trend and mutation characteristics of runoff, areal precipitation and potential evapotranspiration were analyzed statistically by using linear regression analysis and cumulative anomaly methods, etc. And on this basis, the contributions of climate change and human activity to runoff change were estimated quantitatively by using slope change ratio of cumulative quantity (SCRCQ). The results show that the runoff and areal precipitation, potential evapotranspiration decreased slightly in the Taizihe basin during 1961-2018 as a whole, and the significant mutation of runoff and areal precipitation occurred in 1975, 1984, 1996 and 2009, while that of areal potential evapotranspiration occurred in 1983. The correlations of runoff with areal precipitation, potential evapotranspiration were extremely significant, and the runoff increased with increase of precipitation and decrease of potential evapotranspiration. The study period was divided into five stages according to the abrupt point of runoff. Compared with the base period (1961-1975), the contribution rates of climate change to runoff decrease were 23.24%, -0.08%, 18.57% and 28.45% during 1976-1984, 1985-1996, 1997-2009 and 2010-2018,  respectively, while for human activities they were 76.76%, 100.08%, 81.43% and 71.55%, respectively, which indicated that the human activities played an dominant role in decreasing of runoff in the Taizihe basin.
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    Spatio-temporal Variation Characteristics of Vegetation Coverage and Its Response to Climate Change in Liaoning Province
    YI Xue, YANG Sen, LIU Mingyan, LI Tao, HOU Yiling, CUI Yan
    Journal of Arid Meteorology    2021, 39 (2): 252-261.   DOI: 10.11755/j.issn.1006-7639(2021)-02-0252
    Abstract188)      PDF (3666KB)(408)       Save
    Based on MODIS-NDVI (normalized difference vegetation index) datasets, the vegetation coverage was calculated in Liaoning Province from 2001 to 2019. Combined with land cover products of MODIS and air temperature and precipitation data at 61 meteorological observation stations in Liaoning Province, the spatio-temporal variation characteristics of vegetation coverage of five main types of vegetation were analyzed emphatically, and their responses to temperature and precipitation changes were discussed. The results are as follows: (1) The multi-year mean vegetation coverage was 0.48, and it was high in the east and low in the west of Liaoning Province from 2001 to 2019. The annual vegetation coverage increased in most areas of Liaoning Province in the past 19 years, and it presented an obvious increasing trend with the rate of 0.036 per 10-year as a whole. In additional, the vegetation coverage of five main vegetation types including crop, grassland, deciduous broadleaf forest, woody savanna and savanna increased significantly in Liaoning Province in the past 19 years, and the increasing rate of grassland vegetation coverage was the largest, while for crop vegetation coverage it was the smallest. (2) The vegetation coverage of crop was positively correlated with precipitation and negatively correlated with temperature in semi-arid areas of warm temperate zone in Liaoning Province, while it was positively correlated with precipitation and temperature in semi-humid areas of warm temperate zone. The response of grassland vegetation coverage to precipitation was stronger than temperature, while deciduous broadleaf forest, woody savanna and savanna were more sensitive to temperature. (3) The time lag responses of vegetation coverage with five main vegetation types to temperature and precipitation were different. The response of crop and grassland to precipitation in last month was sensitive during the growth season, while the responses of deciduous broadleaf forest, woody savanna and savanna to previous month’s temperature and precipitation were sensitive at the end stage of growth season.
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    Temporal and Spatial Variation Characteristics of Wind Disaster and Its Causes in Northern Xinjiang from 1980 to 2019
    WU Xiulan, MA Yu, CHEN Ruiyong
    Journal of Arid Meteorology    2021, 39 (2): 262-268.   DOI: 10.11755/j.issn.1006-7639(2021)-02-0262
    Abstract239)      PDF (1896KB)(413)       Save
    Based on the occurrence number of wind disasters and its associated disaster situations data including death tolls, collapsed houses, collapsed sheds, dead livestock, disaster-affected area of crop in 38 counties or cities of northern Xinjiang from 1980 to 2019, the disaster damage index of strong wind was constructed by using the normalized and weighted sum methods, and the perniciousness grades of wind disasters were determined for each county or city and each year according to the probability density distribution. Compared with average wind speed at 44 weather stations, planting area of crops and livestock number in each county or city of northern Xinjiang, the temporal and spatial variation characteristics of wind disasters and its causes were studied. The results show that the heavier wind disaster and above levels mainly distributed in the agricultural and pastoral areas, draughts and developed cities of the north, Yili river valley and along Tianshan mountain area of northern Xinjiang, which was basically consistent with the spatial distribution of wind speed. The wind disaster mainly occurred in spring in northern Xinjiang, and its frequency and intensity was maximum in April, which corresponded to the seasonal distribution of wind speed. The wind disaster damage presented a significant increasing trend in northern Xinjiang in the past 40 years, and the damage index increased by 0.24 per 10-year. Under the background of climate warming, the fluctuation increased and the perniciousness strengthened, which was closely related to the increase of crop planting area and livestock, while there wasn’t obviously relevant to the wind speed.
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    Evolution Characteristics of Extreme Heavy Precipitation in Coast of Zhejiang Province Caused by Typhoon Lekima
    ZHENG Zheng, PAN Lingjie, QIAN Yanzhen, ZHAO Changyu, HUANG Xuanxuan, XIAO Wangxing
    Journal of Arid Meteorology    2021, 39 (2): 269-278.   DOI: 10.11755/j.issn.1006-7639(2021)-02-0269
    Abstract217)      PDF (5700KB)(412)       Save
    Based on the ground intensive observation data, NCEP FNL reanalysis data, FY-2G satellite cloud images and dual polarization radar data, the influences of Typhoon Lekima (1909) on extreme heavy precipitation in the coast of Zhejiang Province were analyzed and discussed. The results show that the intensity of Typhoon Lekima was strong, the range was wide, and the intensity weakened slowly and movement was slow after the typhoon landing, which caused the extreme heavy precipitation in the coast of Zhejiang Province. The low values of black body temperature (TBB) matched with the centers of heavy rainfall for a long time, and the train effect and enhancement of southeasterly jet anticipated the amplification of heavy rainfall. The high value zones of ZH, KDP and ZDR of dual polarization radar were consistent, which indicated there were plenty of big water drops over the coastal areas of Zhejiang. The atmospheric precipitable water consistently maintained high-value with 70 to 80 mm over extreme heavy precipitation area, and the continuous and exuberant southwesterly and easterly jets transported water vapour to Zhejiang. Meanwhile, the center of positive vorticity coincided with the center of strong convergence in lower troposphere, and the height of convection development was very high, which were conductive to the amplification of heavy rainfall. Moreover, the vertical motion of apparent heat source (Q1) and apparent water vapor sink (Q2) was dominant. The peak value of Q1 and Q2 appeared alternately, and the corresponding height of the former was higher than that of the latter, which was beneficial to latent heat releasing and heavy rainfall maintaining.
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    Vertical Characteristics of Raindrop Size Distribution During a Heavy Rain in Yining of Xinjiang Based on Micro-rain Radar Data
    TONG Zepeng, YANG Lianmei, ZENG Yong, LI Jiangang, LIU Fan
    Journal of Arid Meteorology    2021, 39 (2): 279-287.   DOI: 10.11755/j.issn.1006-7639(2021)-02-0279
    Abstract172)      PDF (3252KB)(393)       Save
    A heavy rain process occurred in Yining of Yili valley on 30 September 2019. Based on the observation data of micro rain radar (MRR), terrestrial OTT-PARSIVEL raindrop spectrometer and rain gauge at Yining station, the reliability of MRR data was compared and tested. And on this basis, the vertical distribution characteristics of microphysical quantities retrieved by MRR were investigated at different stages of the heavy rain process. The results show that the precipitations from three kinds of instruments were close, and their change trends were consistent. The rainfall intensity of MRR near ground level (35, 70 and 105 m) had a good correlation with the observation of OTT-PARSIVEL raindrop spectrometer, the coefficients were 0.9233, 0.9289 and 0.9186, respectively, and the convergence degree of rainfall intensity between two kinds of instruments was higher when the rainfall intensity was less than 3 mm·h -1. The vertical distributions of microphysical quantities from MRR were different at different stages of rainfall intensity. At the low rainfall intensity stage, the environmental humidity was lower and evaporation was stronger during the initial period of rainfall, the radar reflectivity factor, liquid water content and rain intensity from MMR decreased with decrease of height, while the environmental humidity was higher and evaporation was weaker during the middle period of rainfall, and the vertical changes of radar reflectivity factor, liquid water content and rain intensity weren’t obvious. During the late period of rainfall, the rain intensity near ground decreased significantly under the low rainfall intensity condition because the supply of water vapor and power was lack. At the moderate and high rainfall intensity stages, the vertical distribution of particles falling velocity was stable, while the radar reflectivity factor, liquid water content and rain intensity increased with decrease of height due to the collision and merger interaction between raindrops. The small raindrops dominated during the heavy rain process in Yining, the percentage of average number concentration of small raindrops to total number concentration exceeded 90%, and it decreased with decrease of height. The contribution of medium raindrops to total rain intensity was the greatest, the contribution rates at different stages of rainfall intensity were 60% and above, and it increased with decrease of height. The number concentration of large raindrops was the smallest in proportion of total number concentration, and its contribution to total rain intensity was the smallest.
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    Characteristics of Atmospheric Downward Longwave Radiation and Influence of Cloud on the Northern Shore of the Qinghai Lake
    XIE Ting, MA Yujun, ZHANG Wuzhao
    Journal of Arid Meteorology    2021, 39 (2): 288-295.   DOI: 10.11755/j.issn.1006-7639(2021)-02-0288
    Abstract135)      PDF (1051KB)(391)       Save
    The atmospheric downward longwave radiation has great significance to surface energy balance and water cycle. Based on the observation data of radiation flux from September 2018 to August 2019 on the northern shore of the Qinghai Lake, the multi-temporal scale change characteristics of radiation flux were analyzed, and the applicability of ten parameterized formulas of atmospheric emissivity on sunny days was compared. And on this basis, the influences of clouds on atmospheric downward longwave radiation were quantitatively evaluated. The results show that each component of radiation had obvious and similar diurnal variation with ‘single peak’ pattern on the northern shore of the Qinghai Lake, and the radiations were higher during the day and lower at night. The radiative components except for upward shortwave radiation (mainly affected by land surface albedo) varied following air temperature during the year. Among ten parameterized formulas of atmospheric emissivity on sunny days, the applicability of Brutsaert formula was the highest on the northern shore of the Qinghai Lake. The atmospheric downward longwave radiation gradually enhanced with increase of cloud fraction ( C f). The cloud enhancement effect was less than 10 W·m -2 when C was less than 10%, and exceeded 60 W·m -2 when  C f was more than 75%. The ratio between the observation value of atmospheric downward longwave radiation on cloudy sky and corresponding calculated value on clear sky increased with increase of C f, and there was a very significant quadratic function relationship between them. When  C f was less than 10%, the mean ratio was only 1.04, while when  C f exceeded 75%, the ratio was more than 1.25, so their quantitative relationship could better reveal the influence of clouds on atmospheric downward longwave radiation in this area.
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    Influence of Precipitation on Mass Concentration of Atmospheric Pollutants in Cangzhou of Hebei Province
    XIONG Xianping, ZHANG Wei, ZHU Rui, LI Erjie
    Journal of Arid Meteorology    2021, 39 (2): 296-301.   DOI: 10.11755/j.issn.1006-7639(2021)-02-0296
    Abstract136)      PDF (1038KB)(345)       Save
    Based on hourly meteorological and environmental observation data from Cangzhou of Hebei Province from 2014 to 2019, the influences of precipitation on atmospheric pollutant concentration were further discussed by using wind and background concentration correction method. The results show that the correction method about wind and background concentration could better remove the own diurnal variation characteristics of pollutant concentration and eliminate the influence of wind speed, and the influence of precipitation on atmospheric pollutant concentration could be acquired more accurately. Under the condition of wind force and background concentration correction, the removal effect of rainfall on PM 2.5, PM 10, O 3 and NO 2 was better, but for SO 2 and CO it wasn’t obvious. The removal effects of rainfall with different intensities on PM 2.5, PM 10 and NO 2 were better, and the removal rate increased with enhance of rainfall intensity. The removal effect of rainfall intensity less than 8.0 mm·h -1  on O 3 was significant, while the rainfall intensity above 6.0 mm·h -1 had removing effect on SO 2. With the duration of rainfall, the mass concentration of PM 2.5, PM 10, NO 2 and O 3 continuously decreased, and the removal efficiency dropped, the removal effect wasn’t obvious when the mass concentration of pollutant dropped to a certain threshold.
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    Study on the Effects of Meteorological Conditions on Ozone Mass Concentration near Surface in Yinchuan
    YANG Jing, ZHU Haibin, LIU Jianjun, YAN Xiaoyu, NA Li, LIU Yulan
    Journal of Arid Meteorology    2021, 39 (2): 302-308.   DOI: 10.11755/j.issn.1006-7639(2021)-02-0302
    Abstract163)      PDF (1993KB)(399)       Save
    Based on the ozone mass concentration monitoring data near surface of Yinchuan and ground and upper meteorological observation data over Eurasian area from 2014 to 2016, the influence of meteorological conditions on ozone mass concentration was probed systematically from two aspects of meteorological factors and atmospheric circulation pattern. The results show that the ozone mass concentration near surface of Yinchuan was positively correlated with air temperature and negatively correlated with relative humidity, respectively. The vertical mixing played a dominant role when the wind speed was low, the ozone mass concentration was positively related with wind speed, while the horizontal diffusion played an important role when the wind speed was high, the ozone mass concentration was negatively related with wind speed. The southerly wind and wind direction towards Helan Mountain were conducive to the increase of ozone mass concentration. There were five circulation patterns on ozone polluting days in Yinchuan: trough and ridge pattern (44%), wide trough pattern (21%), subtropical high pattern (16%), northeast ridge pattern (8%) and others pattern (11%). The inversion layer near surface and sea-level low pressure system (or inverted trough) were important synoptic systems which caused ozone pollution in Yinchuan.
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    Exploration of Climatotherapy Connotation Based on Migration of Longevous Siberian Crane and Its Enlightenment#br#
    WANG Xinzi, GUO Yong, ZHENG Jiangping, MA Pan, LIN Yingyi, YUE Man, WANG Shigong
    Journal of Arid Meteorology    2021, 39 (2): 309-316.   DOI: 10.11755/j.issn.1006-7639(2021)-02-0309
    Abstract136)      PDF (1830KB)(401)       Save
    Based on the daily meteorological observation data at 17 weather stations of China and NCEP reanalysis data along the migration route of Siberian Crane during 1959-2018, the variation ranges of main meteorological elements in habitats and resting places of Siberian Crane were analyzed. Combined with the meteorological observation data at 547 weather stations in mainland of China from 1961 to 2019, the human body comfort degrees were respectively calculated and classified in habitats of Siberian Crane and mainland of China by using the human body comfort index and classification standard based on ‘the Golden Section’, and the characteristics of inner climatotherapy life during the migration of Siberian Crane were probed. The results show that the temperature in habitats and stopover places of Siberian Crane was from 0 ℃ to 15 ℃, and the relative humidity, average wind velocity and atmospheric pressure changed from 60% to 80%, 2 to 3 m·s -1 and 1005 hPa to 1018 hPa, respectively. In general, Siberian Crane aimed to the cool, humid, breezy and clear meteorological environment, they spent 90.83% time of a year living in cool, cooler or slightly cold zones. By migrating seasonally, they stayed away from extreme cold or heat to ensure longevity, which could provide better reference for the migratory-bird sojourn of elder people in China. The human body comfort degrees in mainland of China had obvious spatial difference and seasonal complementary characteristics. The climate in Northeast China, Northwest China and part areas of Southwest China was comfortable in summer, while in coastal areas of South China and Hainan it was comfortable in winter. The periods of generalized comfort level in major cities of China could be used as a reference for the migratory-bird sojourn of the elderly. In addition, the suitable stopover could buffer the significant change of meteorological environment between the origin and destination and make the body gradually to adapt the change during the travelling to escape the heat or cold, which would effectively reduce or avoid the travelling health risks due to the wide change of meteorological environment in short period.
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    Study on Climate Comfort Degree and Its Health Care Effect in Three Tourist Cities of Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau
    LU Shan, GUO Yong, ZHENG Jiangping, WANG Shigong
    Journal of Arid Meteorology    2021, 39 (2): 317-325.   DOI: 10.11755/j.issn.1006-7639(2021)-02-0317
    Abstract174)      PDF (1961KB)(385)       Save
    For the needs of healthy tourism development, based on the daily meteorological observation data at Lijiang of Yunnan Province, Xishui and Jinping of Guizhou Province, the characteristics of climate comfort degree were analyzed based on human body comfort index caculated by ‘the Golden Section method’ and its classification in the three famous tourist cities. And on this basis the concentration degree of generalized comfort period in the three cities and their complementarity in time were studied. Finally, combined with the relevant disease data, the effect of climatic health care was explored. The results show that the generalized comfort period was longer in Lijiang and Xishui cities, which concentrated from February to November and March to November, respectively, and the climate comfort degree was high and the number of patients with respiratory diseases was low in each month of summer, so the effect of climatic health care was significant in summer. The climate in spring and autumn was comfortable in Jinping County, the climate comfort degree was higher in April, May, September and October, and the incidence rate of diseases was relatively low during the generalized comfort periods. In short, the effect of climatic health care on respiratory diseases was the best in summer in the three places, followed by circulatory system diseases, and the optimal climate comfort periods and health care effects among the three places were complementary in time, which was beneficial to clusters of climatic health care and tourism. The above results could provide some references for the choice of health care and tourist time in the above three places.
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    Effect of Temperature on Children’s Respiratory Diseases in Qinhuangdao of Hebei Province
    XU Jing, LIU Huayue, JIN Tiantian, SUN Ziyuan, FU Guiqin
    Journal of Arid Meteorology    2021, 39 (2): 326-332.   DOI: 10.11755/j.issn.1006-7639(2021)-02-0326
    Abstract117)      PDF (1238KB)(350)       Save
    The purpose of this paper was to quantitatively analyze the temperature affecting the number of hospitalized children with respiratory diseases in coastal cities. Based on the medical records of pediatrics in Maternity and Child Care Center of Qinhuangdao from January 2013 to August 2016, the Poisson generalized additive model based on time series was used to analyze the exposures-response relationship between air temperature and the number of hospitalized children with respiratory diseases by controlling the long-term trend of time, holiday, day of the week effect and the influence of environmental meteorological factors. The analysis was stratified by season and sex. The results show that there were lag and cumulative effects of air temperature on the number of inpatients, and the sliding cumulative mean air temperature with a lag of two days ( T 0-2) had the best effect on the number of hospitalized patients, and there was a nonlinear correlation with the number of inpatients. In cold season, the optimal value of T 0-2 for boys and girls was 4.0 ℃ and -2.9 ℃, respectively, and in warm season, the optimal value of  T 0-2 for boys and girls was 16.3 ℃ and 16.5 ℃, respectively. The decrease of T 0-2 when it was below the optimal value and the increase when it was above the optimal value both led to the increase of hospital admission risk (RR). Both in cold and warm seasons, there was a significant gender difference in RR. The effect of low temperature in cold season and high temperature in warm season of girls was greater than that of boys.
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    WANG Yan-Feng, CHEN Yan, YAN Hui-Min, LI Yu-Wu
    J4    2010, 12 (1): 1-9.  
    Abstract434)            Save
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